浅谈Oracle(一)

发表于 2019-09-19  206 次阅读


ORACLE数据库系统是美国ORACLE公司(甲骨文)提供的以分布式数据库为核心的一组软件产品,是目前最流行的客户/服务器(CLIENT/SERVER)或B/S体系结构的数据库之一。比如SilverStream就是基于数据库的一种中间件。ORACLE数据库是目前世界上使用最为广泛的数据库管理系统,作为一个通用的数据库系统,它具有完整的数据管理功能;作为一个关系数据库,它是一个完备关系的产品;作为分布式数据库它实现了分布式处理功能。但它的所有知识,只要在一种机型上学习了ORACLE知识,便能在各种类型的机器上使用它。

其中它的常用sql语句:

1、查看表空间的名称及大小

select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size
from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d
where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name
group by t.tablespace_name;

2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小

select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,
round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;

3、查看回滚段名称及大小

select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status,
(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent,
max_extents, v.curext CurExtent
From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v
Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)
order by segment_name ;

4、查看控制文件

select name from v$controlfile;

5、查看日志文件

select member from v$logfile;

6、查看表空间的使用情况

select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;

SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,
(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"
FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C
WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME;

7、查看数据库库对象

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;

8、查看数据库的版本

Select version FROM Product_component_version
Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';

9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;

10、捕捉运行很久的SQL

column username format a12
column opname format a16
column progress format a8

select username,sid,opname,
round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || '%' as progress,
time_remaining,sql_text
from v$session_longops , v$sql
where time_remaining <> 0
and sql_address = address
and sql_hash_value = hash_value
/
11。查看数据表的参数信息
SELECT partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,
pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,
next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,
freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,
empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size,
last_analyzed
FROM dba_tab_partitions
--WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner
ORDER BY partition_position

12.查看还没提交的事务
select * from v$locked_object;
select * from v$transaction;

13。查找object为哪些进程所用
select
p.spid,
s.sid,
s.serial# serial_num,
s.username user_name,
a.type object_type,
s.osuser os_user_name,
a.owner,
a.object object_name,
decode(sign(48 - command),
1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,
p.program oracle_process,
s.terminal terminal,
s.program program,
s.status session_status
from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p
where s.paddr = p.addr and
s.type = 'USER' and
a.sid = s.sid and
a.object='SUBSCRIBER_ATTR'
order by s.username, s.osuser

14。回滚段查看
select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents
Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs,
v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes,
sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs,
v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and
v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum

15。耗资源的进程(top session)
select s.schemaname schema_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, status
session_status, s.osuser os_user_name, s.sid, p.spid , s.serial# serial_num,
nvl(s.username, '[Oracle process]') user_name, s.terminal terminal,
s.program program, st.value criteria_value from v$sesstat st, v$session s , v$process p
where st.sid = s.sid and st.statistic# = to_number('38') and ('ALL' = 'ALL'
or s.status = 'ALL') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc, p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc

16。查看锁(lock)情况
select /*+ RULE */ ls.osuser os_user_name, ls.username user_name,
decode(ls.type, 'RW', 'Row wait enqueue lock', 'TM', 'DML enqueue lock', 'TX',
'Transaction enqueue lock', 'UL', 'User supplied lock') lock_type,
o.object_name object, decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, 'Row Share', 3,
'Row Exclusive', 4, 'Share', 5, 'Share Row Exclusive', 6, 'Exclusive', null)
lock_mode, o.owner, ls.sid, ls.serial# serial_num, ls.id1, ls.id2
from sys.dba_objects o, ( select s.osuser, s.username, l.type,
l.lmode, s.sid, s.serial#, l.id1, l.id2 from v$session s,
v$lock l where s.sid = l.sid ) ls where o.object_id = ls.id1 and o.owner
<> 'SYS' order by o.owner, o.object_name

17。查看等待(wait)情况
SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value
FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN ('db block gets',
'consistent gets') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count

18。查看sga情况
SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME ASC

19。查看catched object
SELECT owner, name, db_link, namespace,
type, sharable_mem, loads, executions,
locks, pins, kept FROM v$db_object_cache

20。查看V$SQLAREA
SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM, RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS,
VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS, USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS,
USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,
BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA

21。查看object分类数量
select decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 , 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 ,
'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) object_type , count(*) quantity from
sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3
, 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 , 'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) union select
'COLUMN' , count(*) from sys.col$ union select 'DB LINK' , count(*) from

22。按用户查看object种类
select u.name schema, sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1, NULL)) indexes,
sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables, sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL))
clusters, sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL)) views, sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1,
NULL)) synonyms, sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL)) sequences,
sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4, NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1))
others from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u where o.type# >= 1 and u.user# =
o.owner# and u.name <> 'PUBLIC' group by u.name order by
sys.link$ union select 'CONSTRAINT' , count(*) from sys.con$

23。有关connection的相关信息
1)查看有哪些用户连接
select s.osuser os_user_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command),
'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, p.program oracle_process,
status session_status, s.terminal terminal, s.program program,
s.username user_name, s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter, '' query,
0 memory, 0 max_memory, 0 cpu_usage, s.sid, s.serial# serial_num
from v$session s, v$process p where s.paddr=p.addr and s.type = 'USER'
order by s.username, s.osuser
2)根据v.sid查看对应连接的资源占用等情况
select n.name,
v.value,
n.class,
n.statistic#
from v$statname n,
v$sesstat v
where v.sid = 71 and
v.statistic# = n.statistic#
order by n.class, n.statistic#
3)根据sid查看对应连接正在运行的sql
select /*+ PUSH_SUBQ */
command_type,
sql_text,
sharable_mem,
persistent_mem,
runtime_mem,
sorts,
version_count,
loaded_versions,
open_versions,
users_opening,
executions,
users_executing,
loads,
first_load_time,
invalidations,
parse_calls,
disk_reads,
buffer_gets,
rows_processed,
sysdate start_time,
sysdate finish_time,
'>' || address sql_address,
'N' status
from v$sqlarea
where address = (select sql_address from v$session where sid = 71)

24.查询表空间使用情况
select a.tablespace_name "表空间名称",
100-round((nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/a.bytes_alloc)*100,2) "占用率(%)",
round(a.bytes_alloc/1024/1024,2) "容量(M)",
round(nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/1024/1024,2) "空闲(M)",
round((a.bytes_alloc-nvl(b.bytes_free,0))/1024/1024,2) "使用(M)",
Largest "最大扩展段(M)",
to_char(sysdate,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') "采样时间"
from (select f.tablespace_name,
sum(f.bytes) bytes_alloc,
sum(decode(f.autoextensible,'YES',f.maxbytes,'NO',f.bytes)) maxbytes
from dba_data_files f
group by tablespace_name) a,
(select f.tablespace_name,
sum(f.bytes) bytes_free
from dba_free_space f
group by tablespace_name) b,
(select round(max(ff.length)*16/1024,2) Largest,
ts.name tablespace_name
from sys.fet$ ff, sys.file$ tf,sys.ts$ ts
where ts.ts#=ff.ts# and ff.file#=tf.relfile# and ts.ts#=tf.ts#
group by ts.name, tf.blocks) c
where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name and a.tablespace_name = c.tablespace_name

25. 查询表空间的碎片程度

select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name
having count(tablespace_name)>10;

alter tablespace name coalesce;
alter table name deallocate unused;

create or replace view ts_blocks_v as
select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,'free space' segment_name from dba_free_space
union all
select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from dba_extents;

select * from ts_blocks_v;

select tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;

26。查询有哪些数据库实例在运行
select inst_name from active_instances;

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2、显示当前连接用户
SQL> show user
3、查看系统拥有哪些用户
SQL> select * from all_users;
4、新建用户并授权
SQL> create user a identified by a;(默认建在SYSTEM表空间下)
SQL> grant connect,resource to a;
5、连接到新用户
SQL> conn a/a
6、查询当前用户下所有对象
SQL> select * from tab;
7、建立第一个表
SQL> create table a(a number);
8、查询表结构
SQL> desc a
9、插入新记录
SQL> insert into a values(1);
10、查询记录
SQL> select * from a;
11、更改记录
SQL> update a set a=2;
12、删除记录
SQL> delete from a;
13、回滚
SQL> roll;
SQL> rollback;
14、提交
SQL> commit;
用户授权:
GRANT ALTER ANY INDEX TO "user_id "
GRANT "dba " TO "user_id ";
ALTER USER "user_id " DEFAULT ROLE ALL
创建用户:
CREATE USER "user_id " PROFILE "DEFAULT " IDENTIFIED BY " DEFAULT TABLESPACE
"USERS " TEMPORARY TABLESPACE "TEMP " ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT "CONNECT " TO "user_id ";
用户密码设定:
ALTER USER "CMSDB " IDENTIFIED BY "pass_word "
表空间创建:
CREATE TABLESPACE "table_space " LOGGING DATAFILE
'C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\dbs\table_space.ora' SIZE 5M
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1、查看当前所有对象
SQL > select * from tab;
2、建一个和a表结构一样的空表
SQL > create table b as select * from a where 1=2;
SQL > create table b(b1,b2,b3) as select a1,a2,a3 from a where 1=2;
3、察看数据库的大小,和空间使用情况
SQL > col tablespace format a20
SQL > select b.file_id  文件ID,
b.tablespace_name  表空间,
b.file_name     物理文件名,
b.bytes       总字节数,
(b.bytes-sum(nvl(a.bytes,0)))   已使用,
sum(nvl(a.bytes,0))        剩余,
sum(nvl(a.bytes,0))/(b.bytes)*100 剩余百分比
from dba_free_space a,dba_data_files b
where a.file_id=b.file_id
group by b.tablespace_name,b.file_name,b.file_id,b.bytes
order by b.tablespace_name
/
dba_free_space --表空间剩余空间状况
dba_data_files --数据文件空间占用情况
4、查看现有回滚段及其状态
SQL > col segment format a30
SQL > SELECT SEGMENT_NAME,OWNER,TABLESPACE_NAME,SEGMENT_ID,FILE_ID,STATUS FROM
DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS;
5、查看数据文件放置的路径
SQL > col file_name format a50
SQL > select tablespace_name,file_id,bytes/1024/1024,file_name from
dba_data_files order by file_id;
6、显示当前连接用户
SQL > show user
7、把SQL*Plus当计算器
SQL > select 100*20 from dual;
8、连接字符串
SQL > select 列1 | |列2 from 表1;
SQL > select concat(列1,列2) from 表1;
9、查询当前日期
SQL > select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy-mm-dd,hh24:mi:ss') from dual;
10、用户间复制数据
SQL > copy from user1 to user2 create table2 using select * from table1;
11、视图中不能使用order by,但可用group by代替来达到排序目的
SQL > create view a as select b1,b2 from b group by b1,b2;
12、通过授权的方式来创建用户
SQL > grant connect,resource to test identified by test;
SQL > conn test/test
13、查出当前用户所有表名。
select unique tname from col;
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
/* 向一个表格添加字段 */
alter table alist_table add address varchar2(100);
/* 修改字段 属性 字段为空 */
alter table alist_table modify address varchar2(80);
/* 修改字段名字 */
create table alist_table_copy as select ID,NAME,PHONE,EMAIL,
QQ as QQ2, /*qq 改为qq2*/
ADDRESS from alist_table;
drop table alist_table;
rename alist_table_copy to alist_table
/* 修改表名 */
空值处理
有时要求列值不能为空
create table dept (deptno number(2) not null, dname char(14), loc char(13));
在基表中增加一列
alter table dept
add (headcnt number(3));
修改已有列属性
alter table dept
modify dname char(20);
注:只有当某列所有值都为空时,才能减小其列值宽度。
只有当某列所有值都为空时,才能改变其列值类型。
只有当某列所有值都为不空时,才能定义该列为not null。
例:
alter table dept modify (loc char(12));
alter table dept modify loc char(12);
alter table dept modify (dname char(13),loc char(12));
查找未断连接
select process,osuser,username,machine,logon_time ,sql_text
from v$session a,v$sqltext b whe
-----------------------------------------------------------------
1.以USER_开始的数据字典视图包含当前用户所拥有的信息, 查询当前用户所拥有的表信息:
select * from user_tables;
2.以ALL_开始的数据字典视图包含ORACLE用户所拥有的信息,
查询用户拥有或有权访问的所有表信息:
select * from all_tables;
3.以DBA_开始的视图一般只有ORACLE数据库管理员可以访问:
select * from dba_tables;
4.查询ORACLE用户:
conn sys/change_on_install
select * from dba_users;
conn system/manager;
select * from all_users;
5.创建数据库用户:
CREATE USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY password;
GRANT CONNECT TO user_name;
GRANT RESOURCE TO user_name;
授权的格式: grant (权限) on tablename to username;
删除用户(或表):
drop user(table) username(tablename) (cascade);
6.向建好的用户导入数据表
IMP SYSTEM/MANAGER FROMUSER = FUSER_NAME TOUSER = USER_NAME FILE = C:\EXPDAT.DMP
COMMIT = Y
7.索引
create index [index_name] on [table_name]( "column_name ")

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